Employee motivation is an ever-present concern for most proactive managers. Interestingly enough, motivation can come from both functional and dysfunctional sources.
I’ve seen employees motivated for many different reasons: recognition, financial incentive, empowerment, personal growth, tension release, fear, and finally there’s that weird Lord of the Flies thing where employees get motivated together against another employee.
In their book, Motivating Employees, Anne Bruce and James S. Pepitone describe the most effective ways to motivate a team. They describe the three C’s which are vital to functionally motivating employees:
1. Collaboration: Be sure to involve employees in decisions and discussions where their efforts are involved.
2. Content: As they produce suggestions, act on those suggestions immediately.
3. Choice: Be sure to offer choices to your employees–even if you can predict what they will decide.
These three techniques actually empower your employees. Involving employees in decisions that affect them, or the outcome of what they are working on produces a level of buy-in that is hard to match any other way.
Bruce and Pepitone continue with an examination of Theory-X and Theory-Y motivation and management styles. These styles were originally presented in the 1960’s by Douglas McGregor.
McGregor states that Theory-X managers proceed from the assumption that their employees are uninformed, lazy, and needy of high-structure.
Theory-Y managers, however, proceed from the assumption that their employees are qualified, intelligent, and capable of making proper decisions provided they are given proper goals, accountability, authority, and resources to accomplish their tasks.
Although Theory-X is the most effective approach during some situations, if you consider the amount of college-educated employees in the workforce today, it’s easy to see how Theory-Y, if applied properly, yields much higher performance.
The authors continue with a formula for encouraging Entrepreneurial Thinking. Their five-step formula is:
1. Explain the organization
2. Demonstrate how the organization operates and generates income
3. Help your employees understand the competition
4. Encourage intelligent risk-taking
5. Inspire innovative thinking
Another great idea the authors present is to link motivation to performance. They suggest you develop a written-list of performance standards for meeting and exceeding the expectations you’ve agreed upon during collaborative sessions with them.
The authors talk about how important it is to weave fun into everything your organization does. This may sound like a unusual suggestion at first, but the authors point out that there is a direct correlation between fun on the job and employee productivity, moral, creativity, satisfaction, and most importantly–retention.
The final few chapters in the book discuss de-motivating factors (or individuals), and how to deal with them. There is also a good chapter on conducting effective employee-reviews.
Overall I recommend this book to any manager. It’s a great book to re-read every so often.
Mike J. Berry